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A blood glucose monitoring system
One of the chemicals called ketones.
Acetone on the breath can be smelt – it smells rather
like pear drops. Ketones accumulate in the blood when
there is too little insulin. High ketone levels can
be dangerous and are the cause of ketoacidosis.
Early type of quick- and short-acting
soluble insulin which had to be injected at least
twice daily – often four times (before breakfast,
midday meal, evening meal, and bed).
A & E:
Accident and Emergency department.
magazine published by Diabetes UK.
Bachelor of Surgery degree.
a liquid solution used
to test for sugar in urine.
Biguanide: oral antihyperglycemic drug used for type 2 diabetes or prediabetes treatment.
BM: Bachelor of Medicine degree.
Caesarean: shorthand for “Caesarean section”, a
surgical operation for delivering a baby by cutting
through the wall of the mother’s abdomen.
CAPD: Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
– a form of internal dialysis which uses the natural
membrane lining of the abdominal cavity to remove wastes
and water from the blood, instead of filtering the blood
using a haemodialysis machine. Can be administered
by the patient at home.
Chiropodist: a specialist in care for the feet. (See also Podiatrist)
Cortisone: A hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands, and can be given as treatment in some adrenal deficiency states.
Culyer: “The Culyer Report: Supporting Research and Development in the NHS”: a report to the Minister of Health, London , HMSO, 1994
Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating –
an educational programme that teaches people how to
adjust their insulin injections to fit their lifestyle
rather than adjust their activities and food intake
to a pre-set insulin regime.
DCCT: Diabetes Control and Complications Trial - major USA clinical study of type 1 diabetes, conducted from 1983 to 1993, which showed that intensive control of blood glucose levels slows the onset of diabetic complications.
DRWF: The Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation (charity).
a liquid solution used to
test for sugar in urine. (See also Benedict’s solution.)
general practitioner, based in a local
surgery rather than a hospital.
Glargine: (trade name Lantus)
a form of
longer acting insulin.
a hormone produced in the pancreas
which raises rather than lowers blood glucose. Because
of this effect it can be injected if someone with diabetes
has a low blood glucose, and for a short while the glucose
will rise to normal. The effect, however, is fairly
short, so as recovery occurs carbohydrate should be
taken by mouth.
Glycosylated hemoglobin test:
See HbA1c test.
a form of kidney dialysis, administered
in hospitals, in which the blood is cleaned outside
the body by a machine which passes the blood across
Haemoglobin A1c. The level of HbA1c reflects
the average blood glucose level over the past 3 months.
HbA1c of 6.5% is excellent. HbA1c of more than 10% shows
very poor control.
used by interviewees to refer
to genetically engineered insulin, first marketed in
“human” insulin first manufactured by
Lilly in the 1980s
an excess of glucose in the bloodstream.
a deficiency of glucose
in the bloodstream which leads to progressive loss of
consciousness. A severe hypo would mean that the person
with diabetes was completely unaware of what was happening.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance – name given to define blood glucose levels that are higher than normal, but below the level of a person with diabetes
a medium duration insulin typically
administered at night and sometimes twice daily.
break down product of fat that accumulates
in the blood as a result of inadequate insulin or inadequate
a long-acting insulin given usually once
a day to help control blood sugar level.
interviewees use the phrase
to refer to a variety of medical procedures employing
a laser (a concentrated beam of light) to improve eyesight.
physician working at King’s College Hospital, London.
Co-founded the British Diabetes Association (now Diabetes
UK) in 1934.
A type of insulin first produced by Novo
in 1953 with an intermediate length of action
popular drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
very small increase in albumin in the urine, which may indicate the onset of diabetic nephropathy.
a long-acting zinc-based insulin.
Membership of the Royal College of Physicians, a postgraduate exam for UK doctors.
National Health Service, founded in 1948
to provide healthcare free at the point of use to the
diabetic nephropathy is a disease
resulting from the destruction of the kidney’s delicate
disease or dysfunction of peripheral
nerves. Neuropathy typically causes numbness of the
feet in a so-called “stocking” distribution.
large, open-plan hospital ward
with dormitory-style rows of beds and no sub-divisions. Named after the pioneering nurse, Florence Nightingale.
National Institutes of Health, medical research centre, an agency of the United States Department of Health.
Pen-shaped insulin delivery device.
the trade name for an analogue
of insulin (aspart insulin) which is very short-acting.
National Health Service Framework - policies set by the UK National Health Service to establish requirements for the quality of care.
drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, no longer widely available.
another term for chiropodist, favoured
in the US and EU and used increasingly in the UK.
a longer-acting type of insulin
introduced in 1936.
Quality Outcomes Framework – an annual reward and incentive programme for all GP surgeries in England.
Royal Army Medical Corps, a specialist corps in the British Army.
a doctor in the UK’s National Health Service who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field in order eventually to become a consultant in that field.
disease of the retina which results
in impairment or loss of vision. After 1980 retinopathy
could be treated with laser treatment. Before 1980 severe
retinopathy could result in blindness.
a mixture of zinc and regular insulin.
Discontinued as a brand.
Senior House Officer – a doctor undergoing specialist training within the UK’s National Health Service.
St. Vincent Declaration:
a meeting of representatives of government health departments, patients' organizations and diabetes experts in St Vincent, Italy, in October 1989. They agreed on general goals and five-year targets for people with diabetes.
Sulfonylurea (UK: Sulphonylurea) derivatives:
a class of drugs used in the management of type 2 diabetes.
abbreviation of tuberculosis.
drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
a form of diabetes where the insulin-producing
cells fail very rapidly. Previously called “juvenile-onset
diabetes” because it is this type most commonly found
in children. Insulin is needed to preserve life. A fatal
disease before the discovery of insulin.
a form of diabetes where the insulin-producing
cells fail slowly, but progressively. . Previously called
“maturity-onset diabetes” because it is this type most
commonly found overweight adults.. Insulin is not needed
to preserve life. Type 2 diabetes can be treated with
diet, exercise and oral agents early in its progress.
Insulin is often required later.
U-40, U-80, U-100:
different strengths (units per millilitre) of insulin. U-100 became the standard strength prescribed in the UK and the USA from the 1970s.
University Group Diabetes Program Study – USA study, published in the 1970s, which apparently showed that people being treated with oral anti-diabetic drugs were more likely to die a cardiovascular death – later disproved.
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study – major UK clinical study of type 2 diabetes, conducted from 1977 to 1997, which showed that the lowering of raised blood glucose and blood pressure levels significantly reduces the life threatening complications of type 2 diabetes.
the longest-lasting of the three
Lente insulins first produced by Novo in 1953
a trade name for a short-acting insulin.
World Health Organisation, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations.